Authors Guidelines

Author Guidelines

Title page
All articles must have a title page with the following information and in this particular order: Title of the article; surname, initials, qualifications and affiliation and orcid of each author; The name, postal address, e-mail address and telephonic contact details of the corresponding author.



The authors confirm that all authors have made substantial contributions to all of the following:

  • The conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.
  • Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
  • Final approval of the version to be submitted.
  • Sound scientific research practice

 The authors further confirm that:

  • The manuscript, including related data, figures and tables has not been previously published and is not under consideration elsewhere
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • This submission does not represent a part of single study that has been split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).


  • The authors confirm that the work submitted is original and does not transgress the plagiarism policy of the journal.
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own.
  • Proper acknowledgements of other’s work has been given (this includes material that is closely copied, summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material.
  • Permissions have been secured for material that is copyrighted.

 Conflict of interest statement

A conflicting interest exists when professional judgement concerning a primary interest (such as patient’s welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain or personal rivalry). It represents a situation in which financial or other personal considerations from authors, reviewers or editors have the potential to compromise or bias professional judgment and objectivity. It may arise for the authors when they have financial interest that may influence their interpretation of their results or those of others. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. All potential conflicts of interest need to be declared. The conflict of interest statement should list each author separately by name, i.e.

“John Smith declares that he has no conflict of interest. Paula Taylor has received research grants from Drug Company A. Mike Schultz has received a speaker honorarium from Drug Company B and owns stock in Drug Company C.”

If multiple authors declare no conflict, this can be done in one sentence

Funding sources

All sources of funding should be declared. Also define the involvement of study sponsors in the study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data; the writing of the manuscript; the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, this should be stated.

Compliance with ethical guidelines

For all publications:

“The author/s declare that this submission is in accordance with the principles laid down by the Responsible Research Publication Position Statements as developed at the 2nd World Conference on Research Integrity in Singapore, 2010.”

Available from:

Institutional Review Board (IRB) ethical approval must have been given if the study involves human subjects or animals. Please provide the approval number and IRB documentation.

“Prior to commencement of the study ethical approval was obtained from the following ethical review board: Provide name and reference number”

For studies with human subjects include the following:

“All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.”

“Informed written consent was or was not obtained from all patients for being included in the study.”

For studies with animals include the following sentence:

“All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.”

For articles that do not contain studies with human or animal subjects:

“This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.”

If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. If any identifying information about patients is included in the article, the following sentence should also be included: Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is included in this article. The Helsinki Declaration 2008 can be found at

The submitting author must provide written confirmation of Research Ethics Committee approval for all studies including case reports. The ethics committee as well as the approval number should be included.

All articles should include an abstract. The structured abstract for an Original Research article should be between 200 and 230 words and should consist of four paragraphs labeled Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. It should briefly describe the problem or issue being addressed in the study, how the study was performed, the major results, and what the authors conclude from these results. The abstracts for other types of articles should be no longer than 230 words and need not follow the structured abstract format.

All articles should include keywords. Up to five words or short phrases should be used. Use terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of Index Medicus when available and appropriate. Key words are used to index the article and may be published with the abstract.

In a separate section, acknowledge any financial support received or possible conflict of interest. This section may also be used to acknowledge substantial contributions to the research or preparation of the manuscript made by persons other than the authors.

Cite references in numerical order in the text, in superscript format. Please do not use brackets or do not use the foot note function of MS Word.

In the References section, references must be typed 1.5 spaced and numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited, not alphabetically.

The style for references should follow the format set forth in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals ( prepared by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The Vancouver referencing method should be followed. Abbreviations for journal titles should follow Index Medicus format. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references. Personal communications and unpublished data should not be referenced. If essential, such material should be incorporated in the appropriate place in the text.

List all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list the first three, then "et al."; When citing URLs to web documents, place in the reference list, and use the following format: Authors of document (if available). Title of document (if available). URL. (Accessed [date]).

The following are sample references:

  1. Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.
  2. Polgreen PM, Diekema DJ, Vandeberg J, Wiblin RT, Chen YY, David S, et al. Risk factors for groin wound infection after femoral artery catheterization: a case-control study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol [Internet]. 2006 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 5];27(1):34-7. Available from:

More sample references can be found at:"

Tables should be self-explanatory, clearly organised, and supplemental to the text of the manuscript. Each table should include a clear descriptive title on top and numbered in Roman numerals (I, II, etc) in order of its appearance as called out in text. Tables must me inserted in the correct position in the text. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations.

For footnotes use the following symbols, in sequence:*,†,‡,§,||,**,††,‡‡

All figures must be inserted in the appropriate position of the electronic document. Symbols, lettering, and numbering (in Arabic numerals e.g. 1, 2, etc. in order of appearance in the text) should be placed below the figure, clear and large enough to remain legible after the figure has been reduced. Figures must have clear descriptive titles.

Photographs and images
If photographs of patients are used, either the subject should not be identifiable or use of the picture should be authorised by an enclosed written permission from the subject. The position of photographs and images should be clearly indicated in the text. Electronic images should be saved as either jpeg or gif files. All photographs should be scanned at a high resolution (300dpi, print optimised). Please number the images appropriately.

Permission should be obtained from the author and publisher for the use of quotes, illustrations, tables, and other materials taken from previously published works, which are not in the public domain. The author is responsible for the payment of any copyright fee(s) if these have not been waived. The letters of permission should accompany the manuscript. The original source(s) should be mentioned in the figure legend or as a footnote to a table.

Review and action
Manuscripts are initially examined by the editorial staff and are usually sent to independent reviewers who are not informed of the identity of the author(s). When publication in its original form is not recommended, the reviewers' comments (without the identity of the reviewer being disclosed) may be passed to the first author and may include suggested revisions. Manuscripts not approved for publication will not be returned.