Bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1, promotes wound reepithelialisation <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>
AbstractRoyal jelly (RJ) has successfully been used as a remedy in wound healing. RJ has multiple effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, in various cell types. However, no component(s) (other than antibacterial) have been identified in RJ-accelerated wound healing. In this study, we demonstrate that keratinocytes are responsible for the elevated production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after incubation with a water extract of RJ. Furthermore, the keratinocyte migration and wound closure rates were significantly increased in the presence of RJ extract. MMP-9 production was reduced significantly following proteinase K treatment but remained stable after heat treatment, indicating that active component(s) have a proteinous character. To identify the component responsible for inducing MMP-9 production, RJ extract was fractionated using C18 RP-HPLC. In fractions exhibiting stimulatory activity, we immunochemically detected the bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1. Defensin-1 was cloned, and recombinant peptide was produced in a baculoviral expression system. Defensin-1 stimulated MMP-9 secretion from keratinocytes and increased keratinocyte migration and wound closure in vitro. In addition, defensin-1 promoted re-epithelisation and wound closure in uninfected excision wounds. These data indisputably demonstrate that defensin-1, a regular but concentration variable factor found in honey and RJ, contributes to cutaneous wound closure by enhancing keratinocyte migration and MMP-9 secretion.
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